Citizens cautioned about mosquito bites
Published 8:55 am Saturday, July 25, 2009
A sentinel chicken has tested positive in Beaufort County for Eastern Equine Encephalitis. Also, two horses in the county have recently contracted the disease and have been euthanized. Across eastern North Carolina, numerous sentinel chickens have tested positive for the disease.
Due to this increase in EEE, the Beaufort County Health Department is urging citizens to take additional precautions to prevent mosquito bites. Spraying to help control mosquito populations is continuing across the county. Areas are being prioritized by locations that are seeing the greatest activity.
EEE is a rare disease. In North Carolina, it is more common in the eastern part of the state than in other areas. The viral illness, transmitted by some species of mosquitoes, attacks the central nervous system, causes inflammation of the brain and can be fatal to animals and humans. Wild birds serve as reservoirs for the virus. Mosquitoes bite the birds and then can transmit the virus to humans and animals.
North Carolina averages about one human case of EEE and about 10 equine cases each year. About 50 percent of human EEE cases are fatal, with young children and the elderly most at risk.
Symptoms can develop from a few days to two weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. They include rapid onset of fever and headache and can resemble a case of the flu. Survivors of EEE infections may suffer from long-term effects to the nervous system. Therapy is limited to treating the symptoms of the disease, but there is no specific cure. There is a vaccine for horses but not for humans.
The best defense for people against EEE infection is to avoid mosquito bites. Reduce time spent outdoors, particularly in early morning and early evening hours when mosquitoes are most active; wear light-colored long pants and long-sleeved shirts and apply mosquito repellent to exposed skin areas. The best defense for horses is to vaccinate them against EEE. The American Academy of Equine Practitioners now recommends that EEE vaccine be administered to all horses as a component of a core vaccination program. See http://www.aaep.org/core vaccinations.htm for additional details.
To reduce mosquito breeding areas around your home and farm:
• Remove any containers that can hold water.
• Keep gutters clean and in good repair.
• Repair leaky outdoor faucets and change the water in bird baths and pet bowls at least twice a week.
• Use screened windows and doors and make sure screens fit tightly and are not torn.
• Keep tight-fitting screens or lids on rain barrels.
For additional information, contact the Beaufort County Health Departments environmental health division at 946-6048.